In order to know or identify any kind of genetic defects in the embryos a test can be done and it is known as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD. There can be some genetic defects in the embryos that are created through IVF or other kind of clinical reproductive technologies. With the help of PGD test these defects can be easily seen.
The process of PGD is derived from the technique of IVF or in vitro fertilization. In the natural process of fertilization, during the general menstrual cycle, a woman normally matures 1 egg. With the process of IVF the woman is given medicines to increase the fertility so that she can mature more than one egg. The eggs are removed from her ovaries through a simple invasive surgical procedure after they become mature. Then these eggs will be fertilized with the help of the partner’s sperm in a petri dish and multiple embryos are created. In the next process a single cell from each embryo is removed in order to detect the sex and other genetic testing. After the testing is done successfully the healthiest 1 or 2 embryos of the selected sex is implanted into the womb of the woman for pregnancy. The process of PGD has some advantages and disadvantages as a medical procedure.
The process is secured and 99% to 100% guarantee is given to select the desired sex of the embryos for pregnancy. Since the embryos are selected before pregnancy, this reduces the chance of termination of pregnancy or abortion if desired sex is not achieved. The embryos are tests to detect the genetic disorder, which means only the healthy embryos get the chance to get into the womb. This reduces the chance of miscarriage. In the process of PGD there are some left-over embryos, which can be stored in a frozen condition in the lab and can be used in case of miscarriage or in the time of next pregnancy.
The cost is the main disadvantage of using this process. It is really very expensive for the common people. The PGD process comes with a high chance of getting twins, because in some cases two embryos can be implanted together inside the womb. Some people view embryos as human life and for them it will be a great issue of how to use the unused embryos? They cannot decide whether they should be donated to some other couples or discarded. This may cause a serious issue for those who consider the embryos as human lives.